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The following is a series of machine scanned and crudely proofed transcriptions from a Science Fiction paperback entitled:

    ``The HAB Theory''
    (C) 1976 by Allan W. Eckert
    (of Nashville Tennessee)
    Popular Library
    P. O. Box 5755
    Terre Haute Indiana 47805
    ISBN: 0-445-08597-5
In placing these excerts on the net, the poster believes that he has not crossed the line of "fair use" in a copyrighted work. Furthermore the book in question is 20 years out of print. I have had a request in to purchase a copy from Amazon.com for over 6 months, with no reply. I posted a personal review of the book on Amazon.com and have recieved some genuinely interesting email correspondance about this book from all over the world.

Link Here for a list of the reviews from Amazon.com on this book as of 10/97. including a reviewer who suggests that there was indeed a person whose initials were HAB and that he had a theory much like that portrayed in this book.
Page vii carries an Author's Note:
"Many of the scientists mentioned in this novel were actual people who lived in the past and who performed the work as described in this book. However those characters who are portrayed in the pages of the story-line are entirely fictional and any resemblance....."

Since there are frequent references to the works of scientists who would have been alive in 1975, but who do not actually appear in the book, there is reason to research if these are references to actual published theories and discoveries



This is an extract of the comments made by Herbert Allen Boardman on page 160 regarding the genesis of his theory:

"Part of the doctrine of geophysical science are the lame explanations for the dealing with the recurring ice ages, periods of history where the alleged advance and retreat of great glaciers from the polar regions, advances and retreats which covered so much of our globe and of which so much physical evidence remains.

"The more I delved into the actual physical evidence, the more skeptical I became of the existing theories. There were many pieces of physical evidence which, in certain respects appeared to be at variance with the theories....

To make sure I hold your attention, let me say that unless instant remedial action is taken, all of mankind and our civilization will soon be destroyed."

"Oh Christ," thought the interviewer, "another goddamned Doomsday nut!"

"You no doubt are thinking that I am insane, but I assure you that such is not the case. I remind you that you agreed on being my interviewer that you would hear out the entire basis of my theory before reaching any conclusions.

Periodically, throughout the history of the earth - at intervals ranging from 3,000 to 7000 years but averaging around 5,500 years apart - great global cataclysms occur which effectively destroy virtually all of whatever life forms or civilizations have developed on the earth to that point. The cataclysm occurs when the earth is badly thrown off balance due to a massive accumulation of ice at the polar regions. As this polar ice grows and creates and imbalance with it's enormous weight, a wobble begins to develop in the rotation of the earth on it's axes. Year by year, as the ice caps grow, the eccentricity of rotation increases until finally a critical point is reached. At that point the tilt of the earth reaches a point where it no longer can overcome the centrifugal force of the spinning earth. With devastating suddenness, the polar masses are thrown toward the point of greatest spin, which is the equator. Quite abruptly, the areas which were polar now have become equatorial, and vice versa. The resultant cataclysm is, of course monumental across the entire face of the earth except at the two points which become pivotal when the capsizing effect occurs. In an effort to paint a better verbal picture for the interviewer, Boardman made and analogy.

Picture the earth he said, "as a round ball spinning in place on a glass tabletop, it's speed of spin very fast and constat. Imagine then, that on the uppermost part of this spinning ball, you drop a tiny glob of molten metal, just slightly off center. the ball immediately begins to wobble... Add more metal, more weight and that wobble becomes more pronounced. Add still more and the eccentricity becomes so great the centrifugal force of the spinning ball grips the weight and turns the entire ball so that the heavily weighted portion is thrown to the outermost rim of the spin - the imaginary line encircling the ball where the speed is greatest - which is coincident with the imaginary line on earth known to us as the equator. That is precisely what happens periodically to the earth. The buildup of ice at the poles increases such proportions and eccentricity that its weight is thrown some ninety degrees from pole to equator.

As the earth is 26 miles greater in diameter when measured around the equator, than when measured around the poles, on the scale of the earth such a variance is far less than the manufacturing tolerances of an ivory billiard ball.

As the process of solar warming of the oceans and the corresponding evaporation of the oceans with the moisture thus released precipitating again as rain or snow all over the earth, the snows that fall on the polar caps do not melt or flow off at anything like the rate at which they evaporate off of the land elsewhere on earth. Snow at the poles impacts upon itself and gradually turns in to glacial ice. As this process continues without pause, as a normal physical course of events, the ice caps continually increase in size. At a symposium of the Union of Geodesy and geophysics, Dr Pyyotor Shoumsky reported studies that prove conclusively that the south polar ice cap was growing at a minimum rate of two hundred ninety three cubic miles of ice annually. To put that number in perspective, Lake Erie contains water totaling a hundred and nine cubic miles. Thus, a blanket of ice forms on top of the existing ice at antarctica each year which is almost three times the volume of water in Lake Erie. That is equal to a layer of ice a mile wide and two miles high from New York to Chicago. And this is the buildup of only one year! These figures were confirmed by Franz Loewe of France and Malcolm Mellors of Australia. There is no mistake.

"The present ice mass is considerably over five and a half million square miles. If the South pole were over Chicago, that would make a two mile thick slab of ice extending from Hudson's Bay to Key West in Florida.,

"Even this wouldn't be a threat if it were perfectly centered over the earth's axis of spin, but it is not and that's our villain. The wobble was discovered by astronomers in 1885. It amounted to only a fraction over and inch. By the mid 1930's this had increased to just over six feet. In 1970, the radial movement was close to eighty yards. And right now (1978) the wobble is approaching a half-mile in radius.

"There is no known means of calculating the point at which rollover will occur. It could conceivably happen with another fraction of an inch of added eccentricity. Then again, it might be able to add another mile or more. Eventually, thought, it'll reach that critical point of no return and the capsizing effect will occur with essentially nor warning. Overcoming the gyroscopic stabilizing effect of the earth's equatorial bulge and in obedience to the laws of centrifugal force the weight of the ice will be thrown toward the strongest area of spin, which is the equator. The earth continues spinning on it's axis as before, but now with some dramatic differences: The ice caps are riding on the equatorial spin, there's a new axis, and practically all life - Man included has been extinguished.

"This is not just a one-time occurrence, it happens over and over again..... there have been thousands of such rollovers, perhaps even millions during the four and a half billion year history of the earth.

"The resultant cataclysm to the earth's surface when such a capsizing occurs must be a stupendous sight to behold. Take the effect on the oceans alone. It's as if you're holding at arm's length in your hands a basin filled with water and then you suddenly spin ninety degrees to the right. Think of the volcanic eruptions, the rifts where the earth splits apart, the mountain chains thrust upward in the areas where the surface compresses. Cyclonic winds and thunderstorms! Mountainous tidal waves, earthquakes, electrical storms of inconceivable intensity, volcanic eruptions.... The awful grandeur of it all! Mother nature on an all-out rampage!"

The interviewer asked for proofs and was promised that they would be forthcoming but Mr Boardman was tired, so they agreed to resume after a night's rest. However before turning off the tape recorder, the interviewer asked: "You mentioned before that we must act quickly to forestall this disaster, how much time do you reason we have?"

Boardman replies: "...the interval of time between each occurrence ranges between three thousand and seven thousand years. The oldest epoch of the past was just about seven thousand years give or take fifty. The physical evidence indicates that our present epoch is in approximately its seventy fifth century. As this suggest, we've been living on borrowed time for quite a while."

Equatorial bulge Displacement. As noted, the capsizing planet, instigated by the migration of overweighed ice through centrifugal force to the outermost rim of spin, slowly but very rapidly accelerates in speed until it reaches 45 degrees from the Axis of Spin, which is the source of the centrifugal force acting on the ice mass.

Immediately upon passing this 45-degree point, an equally rapid deceleration begins, and the ice cap comes to a full stop between 10 and 15 degrees of the former line of the equatorial latitude. The reason for this is that the equatorial bulge--moving more slowly, to be sure, to overcome the resistance of earth crust materials--has been moving to meet the onrushing ice cap.

Thus, the capsizing of the ice cap is not a full 90 degrees, but rather between 75 and 80 degrees. At the same time, the equatorial bulge has moved 10 to 15 degrees toward the ice cap, with which it merges. Immediately the two masses work in unison to establish the new equatorial bulge for stabilization of the globe, still at right angles to the Axis of Spin. But while this is occurring, the kinetic energies of both icy mass and equatorial bulge have increased billions of times what they were at the beginning of the capsizing,



Result and Aftermath. During and following the capsizing of the earth, incredible surface devastation occurs as earth elements strive to adjust to the pressures and absorb the phenomenal kinetic energy which the rollover has generated.

A general chaos manifests itself in many forms--torrential rains, electrical storms unbelievable in their intensity, dust storms, hurricanes, typhoons, massive and extensive earthquakes, a multitude of volcanic eruptions and, most devastating of all, a monstrous deluge as tidal waves of fantastic power sweep all oceans, pounding continents to pieces, inundating whole mountain ranges, rushing to submerge great land masses that have always seemed high and safe, and at the same time exposing masses of land which were heretofore seemingly at too great a depth ever to move above sea level. Existing mountains will be raised or lowered in relation to sea level, old ranges will be flattened and new ones appear.

There will not be the gradual withdrawal of ice, as theorized in the prevailing "Toe Age" concept of alternately growing and receding ice caps. The ice cap, now directly on the equator and fully exposed to the blazing heat of the sun, will begin to melt at once and, while it may have taken thousands of years to reach its present enormous size, it may take only brief decades for the total thaw to occur.

As it disappears, the ice cap will leave behind telltale evi- dence of its former presence. An enormous depression will remain in the surface of the earth where it sat and this will be ringed by a vast circular range of mountains or hills or elevated plateaus, rising gradually from the center of the depression and then falling away sharply on the outside of the rim--the residue of the earth materials squeezed through isostasy from beneath the great weight of the ice cap as it grew. Glacial striations will clearly show on many of these rocks. Riverbeds will form and glacial runoff will carve itself deeply into earth materials as the thaw occurs and vast quantities of water form from the melting ice cap. At the same time, the tropical areas which were suddenly shifted to the polar regions undergo a quick-freezing process and soon are below layers of snow gradually turning into glacial ice as new ice caps begin to form on the earth even while the old ones are still melting.

As the great ice caps continue to melt, ocean levels will rise, inundating still more areas of land and, as the isolated ice mass is reduced and its weight is distributed as water throughout the oceans, earthquakes of great strength and violence will continue to occur as the equatorial bulge adjusts and readjusts to equalize and stabilize the rearrangement of such a weight.

At last the violent disturbances buffeting the earth will settle down and a new stability to the planet becomes evident. Earthquake and volcanic activity virtually cease for perhaps hundreds of years or longer. Little animal life remains on the land masses of the globe but what is there, including human life, adjusts to the new conditions and survives, evolving perhaps into entirely new life forms as part of their continuing adjustment. Much marine life has been wiped out, but much remains and it too must adjust and evolve to survive in the new conditions, for the ocean temperatures have been greatly lowered by the icy volumes of water rushing into the sea from the glacial runoff. Adjustment in marine life will also have to take place to compensate for the greatly reduced salinity of the sea.

When at last the old ice caps have wholly disappeared and the ocean levels are relatively stabilized, the slow but inexorable process begins all over again. Over hundreds and thousands of years the levels of the oceans will lower as evaporation sucks up the moisture, carrying it to the new poles where it falls and compacts and builds into new ice caps until finally those ice caps have become so monumental in size that they begin to wobble eccentrically and eventually capsize the earth once again in a continuing Cycle visited upon the earth hundreds of thousands or perhaps even millions of times during the four-and-a-half-billion-year history of the planet....



The gradual lowering of that weight is comparable to the gradual buildup of the glacial weight. As the pressure increases and the weight sinks lower, it begins causing the mud to squeeze out from under it. As the pressure becomes greater, more of the under material gets Extruded and forms a raised rim around the perimeter oś the weight. That, in essence, is what's happening at Antarctica. The weight of the ice cap is squeezing the material of the continent out from under is The extruded material forms a range of mountains before it, all the way to the coastal areas and even beyond. There's good evidence that in this way not only is the ice cap growing, but the continent itself is Expanding."

"The danger lies in what happens through the creation of this perimeter of mountains. The new mountain range serves as a barrier which prevents the flow-off of the glacial ice into the sea In effect, a huge basin has been created, an actual impoundment of sorts. This allows a much increased volume of ice to accumulate inland and add its weight to the ice cap."



"This buildup has progressed through the centuries. About three hundred years ago, one of the edges of the ice cap pushed beyond the continental mass. This was probably because of two reasons: first, because the mouths of continental rivers did not allow for as great a barrier of mountains to be thrown up at the perimeter as elsewhere; and then also because the depth of the ocean close to the shore of the continental mass allowed some portions of the mountains to literally be shoved off the continent and slid down to the bottom of the sea It was at that time that the first icebergs began being sloughed off by the ice cap into the water. This tends to act as something of a safety valve, because it gets rid of some of the weight that has accumulated." "But not enough?" Asked the interviewer.

"Nowhere near enough, As a safety valve, it's very imperfect. With a regular flow of icebergs being shed into the ocean, there is still more new ice accumulated in one month than is carried off by icebergs in a year.

To go on, pretty much the same thing on a smaller scale is occurring with the ice cap presently on Greenland. Just as with Antarctica, Greenland's and mass has become a depressed rock basin with the weight of the ice cap up-thrusting a range of coastal mountains before it. Much of the rock floor of Greenland is now well below sea level, because of this Extrusion of rock forming the ice basin. The mass of the ice caps at both poles is Increasing every day and right now the weight of the Antarctic ice cap is around three tons per square inch."

"As a sidelight, this sheds a whole new view on why some present areas of the earth are far below sea level--areas such as the Dead Sea region in the Middle East, the Valdes Peninsula in Argentina, Death Valley in California, and so on. These areas, according to the HAB Theory, were once polar seats and became deeply indented by the weight of the ice caps which grew over them."

"I am convinced that modern man has it within his power to simultaneously achieve his most spectacular triumph over the forces of nature and equally save himself from extinction or severe retrogression. For the first time in the history of the earth, man possesses the ability to prevent the capsizing of the planet. Through the use of thermonuclear devices strategically placed at intervals along the twelve-thousand-mile coastal rim of the gigantic Antarctic ice basin and then detonated simultaneously or in series, great pressures can be alleviated.





Perhaps the scientists converging on New York for the HAB Theory Symposium will give some consideration to Tennessee's famous fossil footprints. Found during the last century near Brayton in Bledsoe County, these footprints are not in sandstone, such as those recently described ... which were only 25 million years old. The series of footprints of bare human feet near Brayton are embedded in solid granite which is probably hundreds of millions of years old. Not only that, the human who made those prints must have been gigantic, for the heel alone measures 13 inches in width.



Could it be, that previous civilizations of man were destroyed by such capsizings of the entire planet? Could it be that this was what caused the extinction of the mysterious race which originally built the amazing cities the ruins of which are extensive in Peru long before the ancient Incas were living their own highly advanced civilization? Perhaps now one of the most puzzling of these, the incredible find at Marcahuasi, only 80 kilometers northeast of this city, can be solved....unanswered questions regarding the pre-Incan civilizations which built the great structures at Machu Picchu, Cuzco, Ollantaytambo, and Sasahuaman. Were these the remains of a civilization made extinct by a previous capsizing of the earth? The remains were a continuing enigma to archaeologists, and undoubtedly one of the most bizarrely jarring was a spectacular discovery made in 1952 at an altitude of over 13,000 feet in the Andes.



The discovery, made in 1952 by Dr. Daniel Ruzo, is a great amphitheater of rock in which are magnificent sculptures--but sculptures which, according to all we know, are wholly anachronistic. Here, for example, among carvings of familiar South American animals and people, can also be seen unmistakable carvings in white dioritic porphyry stone of camels and cows, lions and elephants, and other animals which have never lived here, along with finely carved heads, in the same material, of Semites, Caucasians, and Negroes, all of whom came to this continent less than 500 years ago. There is even a perfect rendering of the turtle's long-extinct ancestor the amphichelydia; yet in all recorded history, the amphichelydia is known only from its fossilized remains. It lived during the Upper Triassic Period and became extinct about 180 million years ago. Where, then, could the sculptor have gotten his model? There is also a rendering of a horse, but horses became extinct here 9,000 years ago and did not reappear until brought by Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth century.

Dr. Ruzo's great discovery too long has been ignored. It is now time for science to take a fresh look at the mysteries of the past which titillate and haunt the imaginations of all knowledgeable Peruvians.



...Previous Poles. Using the same process-of location used in ascertaining the location of the North Pole ice cap-in Epoch Number B.P. I (One epoch before the present epoch), the ice cap for B.P. 2 is found to have been where there is an even larger and deeper depression in the earth than the Sudan Basin--present Hudson Bay. While the B.P. 2 Hudson Bay ice cap was in existence, the land masses of India, Borneo, Africa and South America lay in tandem along the equatorial bulge.

Identification of Hudson Bay as the location of the North Pole in B.P. 2 is ascertained from calculation showing that it is approximately the same distance from Lake Chad in the Sudan Basin as the latter is from the present North Pole, indicating again a separation of about 80 degrees of latitude.

The ice cap for B.P. 3 is ascertained in the same manner and proves to center itself at the Caspian Sea which is located in a great depression similar to that formerly occupied by the ice caps for the Sudan Basin and Hudson Bay. All three of these depressions, containing the Caspian Sea, Lake Chad and Hudson Bay, are presently the drainage focus for river systems covering very large areas of territory; rivers which flow into the depressed basins formed by the weight of ice caps which previously rested on these sites.

It becomes possible to trace depression after depression on the face of the earth as the location of a former ice cap. Glacial striations were even discovered on Permian rocks two centuries ago in the Amazon Valley within an area of twenty degrees on both sides of the equator. As a matter of fact, such glacial striations are found in the rocks of the earth at random places all over the globe. So-called Ice Ages can be traced back through their telltale striations on rock faces not only as far back as the Paleozoic Era's-Lower Cambrian Epoch of some 600 million years ago, but some are even recorded as Precambrian, though these records begin to dim over such a period of time with continued capsizings of the earth and disruption of its surface. Three such Precambrian ice cap sites are located in Africa, three others in Asia and two in Australia. Five glaciated horizons of the Permian Period (230-280 million years ago) are found in South America and an equal number of the most recent Ice Ages are located in North America.



In the present geologic epoch, called the Pleistocene (of the Quaternary Period and Cenozoic Era), which, in essence, takes in the last one mullion years, many hundreds of earth capsizings have occurred, along with their cataclysmic results. Beyond the Pleistocene there have been many more. A partial listing of some of the more important and obvious ice cap sites during the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras can include:
  • the Gobi Desert;
  • Lake Victoria:
  • Mar Chiquita in Argentina;
  • the Black Sea;
  • Death Valley, California;
  • the Amazon Valley;
  • Baikal Lake in the USSR;
  • Lake Winnipeg;
  • the Null Arbor Plain in Australia's southwest;
  • Baffin Bay;
  • the Baltic Sea;
  • the Congo Basin;
  • the Mediterranean Sea,
  • Great Bear Lake, Canada;
  • Great Salt Lake, Utah;
  • the Thar Desert in northwest in India;
  • Aral Sea, Uzbek, USSR;
  • the Painted Desert- Lakes Michigan-Huron-Superior;
  • the Angola Basin off the coast of western Africa;
  • the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming;
  • in northeastern Siberia in the vicinity of Tabor
  • the Takla Makan Desert north of the Himalayas;
  • the Canary Basin off the northwestern African coast;
  • Great Slave Lake, Canada;
  • the Argentine Basin 930 miles southeast of Buenos Aires;
  • the Wharton Basin, 900 miles south of Djakarta.


In every location where records written by nature or man can be studied, each of these sites shows radial striations which pinpoint the seat of a former ice cap. In the matter of duration, geologic evidence indicates that an individual ice cap may grow to maturity in as short a span of time as 2,900 years, although the average appears to be more in the vicinity of 5,750 years. Only rarely does an individual epoch react 6,500 years, and no other epoch within at least the last dozen has lasted as long as the present one....





....paged rapidly through the section detailing how the cataclysms had caused the fossilization of soft-bodied animals, fruits, vegetation, dinosaur tracks and eggs. He read again about the finding of fossil trees, or at least portions of them, from depths of 13,000 feet beneath the earth's surface through core boring; the discovery of 59 horizontal strata of fossilized trees separated by massive strata of marine clay-rock of non fossil variety at the Sydney Mines of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; the fact that carbon-14 dating of the mammoth remains found in Siberia and North America clearly indicated a time frame of 7,500 years ago. All this material very strongly supported the contentions of the HAB Theory, and he was no less impressed by it now than he had been the first time he read it.

He swiftly reread the portion explaining how the epoch du- ration for the present was determined by the creepage rate of waterfalls through their gorges and then slowed and began reading more thoroughly again as he came to a different section detailing other forms of evidence supporting the HAB Theory.

Further evidence of earth capsizings can be found in massive mineral deposits which man is in the process of tapping.

Highly illustrative among these are the numerous salt beds which are found in subterranean strata. There is only one way to rationally account for their presence: that they were at one time the bottoms of land depressions which filled with sea water during capsizings of the earth, then became exposed again in subsequent capsizings as salt wakes. Gradually, as the waters evaporated, the salts precipitated to the bottom as residue.

Seven successive beds of these salt deposits have been found in central New York, and a massive one is presently being tapped a thousand feet below the city of Cleveland, Ohio. Over 30 such beds have been discovered in the American Southwest, some deeply buried, some just under the surface. The most significant on the North American continent, however, is the one which is presently being formed in a lake which, while constantly evaporating, still covers an area about the size of the State of Delaware--the Great Salt Lake of Utah. This 2,000-square-mile lake is the last trace of the great prehistoric body of water known to geologists as Lake Bonneville, which covered an area of 20,000 square modes and was over 1,000 feet deep. The great Bonneville Salt flats are on the surface now, but following the next capsizing of the earth they will probably become silted over and eventually, following further capsizings of the earth, become yet another of the multitude of subterranean salt beds.

Coal is another mineral deposit clearly corroborating the theory of successive capsizings of the earth. Coal beds are found in subterranean deposit on a worldwide scale, including the Arctic and Antarctic, and even beneath the ocean floors. Coal mines are presently in operation in the Pacific off the coast of Chile and in the Atlantic off Nova Scotia and England.

There is only one way that coal can be formed. It is the residue of warm temperate, subtropical and tropical climate vegetation. Through hundreds or thousands of years great quantities of vegetative debris--leaves, twigs, fruits, branches, roots--sink to the bottoms of swamps, rivers or lakes. The water covering them reasonably protects them from the oxidation that would have occurred had they been exposed to the air.

At the time of the capsizing of the earth, the submerged deposit of vegetable debris is suddenly shifted to a region of subzero temperature and immediately the water above it freezes. During the polar summer there occurs enough of a thaw to allow siltage to accumulate on the bottom over the mucky vegetation. When the next capsizing of the planet occurs and the deposit is shifted back to a tropical or temperate zone, the layer of silt prevents oxidation of the vegetable matter below it from occurring, while at the same time a new collection of vegetable matter is accumulating on top of the silt. Through repeated capsizings and increasing pressures, the vegetation layers are compressed into coal and the polar siltage layers become slate or shale. Some of the coal mines in Pennsylvania have shown as many as seven horizonal layers of coal with as many corresponding layers of slate or shale interleaved between. Recurrent capsizings of the earth can be the only reasonable and logical explanation for such forma- tions.

Another foundation stone in the construction of support for the HAB Theory postulations lies in the discovery in the relatively recent past of magnetic rocks which vary from the direction of magnetic electrical forces present being imbued into rocks of the earth. The ancients knew of the existence of magnetic rocks, of course, and used them as compasses in their navigation. These were simply rocks magnetized to point north and south by the electrical currents of the earth. But now, much older rocks have been discovered which, though magnetic, do not point north and south but to differing directions. This is powerful indication that they received their magnetization at a time when the location of the poles differed from what it is at present. Some of the rocks of this nature that have been discovered point toward the Sudan Basin and others point toward Hudson Bay. Still others point at other areas where physical evidence indicates ice caps have formed in past epochs. Non conventionally directional magnetic rocks have been discovered in 15 locations on the European and North American continents. They are corollary to, and proof of, the recurrent capsizings of the earth . . .



. . . It is in the matter of the proofs where human history is concerned that incredible new vistas of study are suddenly opened. It is an acknowledged fact among ancient historians that authentic and accurate history of man did not begin until between approximately 7,000 and 7,500 years ago. Actual historical records go back only as far as the earliest known civilizations, such as those of Egypt, Peru, Babylonia, India, Central America, Sumeria, and Assyria. Yet, that 7,500-year period of time represents considerably less than one percent of the time that man has been known, through fossil remains, to have existed on earth.



A curious and yet exciting event of man's history exists in the fact that virtually at cultures in earth, from the most primitive to the most civilized, have in the dim reaches of their history the record or legend of a great flood. In the Bible it is the story of Noah.

In the Oriental book The Ten Stems of China, are texts about it.

In Eros the 12 clay tablets inscribed in Sumerian cuneiform comes the Epic of Gilgamesh, which recounts the journeying of Enkidu, a sort of counterpart of Noah.

In Greek mythology, Deucation and his wife, Pyrrha, are the only survivors of a great flood visited on the earth by the great god Zeus.

The ancient Brahmans, Chat deans, Hindus and Babylonians have their own records or legends about similar great floods from which onto a smart handful of individuals escaped with their lives.

Similar legends are found among the Indians of the Americas and among the aboriginal tribes of Ausralia, Borneo, Sumatra, Africa, and Southeast Asia.

Generally, we moderns have looked upon these stories as being apocryphal, but perhaps we have been wrong. Perhaps much more truth underlies them than we had previously suspected. And while the support they provide cannot at this time be considered proof, they do provide interesting and sometimes rather awesome corroboration to the theory of a recurrently capsizing earth.



Apart from consideration of such legends or so-called records, elements of stronger proof of the HAB Theory's validity have become available in man's history through archeology.

In Iraq, for example, near the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, is the site of the ancient Chaldean city of Ur. Evidence exposed by archaeologists digging through layer after layer to a depth of 50 feet proved that over 130 dynasties existed there. Then, at just over 50 feet, they encountered a 0000000 foot-thick layer of clay. Beneath that layer were discovered the remains of another 10 dynasties, but of such difference that the artifacts recovered from these lower layers bore little resemblance to those discovered in the layers above. Pottery below the clay was beautifully and skillfully painted, but that above the clay was not. Copper artifacts were common in the dynasty layers above the clay, but absent in those below. The archaeologists were unanimous about only one aspect--that the layer of clay had to be the residue of a great flood which buried the city under a dense blanket of silt. For the silt to accumulate and turn into clay took a great while and, though scientists are still not agreed to the exact amount of time involved, the general consensus is that the upper layers were all deposited within the last 6,000 years and perhaps as much as 1,500 years prior to that. The significance of the clay layer beginning to form about 7,500 years ago is inescapable.



The ancient Greek Solon, according to Plato, was told by Egyptian priests in 600 B.C. that 9,000 years previously, Egypt had been invaded by great armies from the powerful island empire of Atlantis, and that afterward Atlantis was devoured by the ocean in a great deluge. The existence of such a place as Atlantis has long been held as a myth, but in view of the accumulation of evidence, perhaps there is more veracity to the story than heretofore believed. That, however, is speculation on the writer's part and not the province of this summary....



Mr. Boardman outlined his plan for diminishing the Antarctic ice cap size in the following manner. The initial point at which man has to attack the great glacier is along the entire perimeter of the coastline, which Extends for 16,000 miles. The average rate of slope, or gradient, from the center of the South Pole ice cap to the sea is presently 7 feet per mile, as compared to a gradient of 28 feet per mile with the North Pole ice cap on Greenland. The gradient of 7 feet per-mile at Antarctica is not sufficient to overcome the barrier rim of mountains holding the ice in check. One of the most urgent priorities Mr. Boardman mentioned was the need to accurately ascertain the annual precipitation in snowfall on the existing ice cap and the ratio of this accumulation to the annual evaporation, ablation, and flow-off. In that manner, it could then be determined Exactly how much the flow-off would have to be increased to stabilize the globe on its present Axis of figure, and then this could be undertaken through the utilization of judiciously placed and detonated thermonuclear devices as previously outlined in these pages.

Mr. Boardman's recommendations ended in the comment that we now have before us a wholly new understanding of the limited time during which our civilization has been developing and the deadly precariousness of its continuance. We have before us, he contended, only two alternatives: either we limit the present growth rate of the Antarctic ice cap, or we accept a limitation to the time we have remaining on this planet in civilization as we now know it.



This concludes the summarization of the theory of a recurrently capsizing earth as postulated by Herbert Allen Boardman, summarizing a quantity of text, mathematical formulae, sketches and photographs equivalent to approximately 20,000 pages. This summary has been prepared by order of the president of the united states for consideration by the special scientific advisory committee appointed by the president to study and evaluate the aforementioned postulation known as the hab theory.

RESPECTFULLY SUBMITTED.

HAB Theory Commission



[A note on scientific discoveries that may not have been known to Allan W. Eckert: There are places in Antarctica that are totally arid, with no evidence of any precipitation at all in hundreds of years. There are also great dry valleys in Antarctica, wide enough for a small airplane to do a leisurely turn around within it's width, which show clear evidence of the passing of a glacier; the smooth contours of the bowl, the scraping lines on the floor of the valley, and boulders scattered in a neat but random pattern all throughout the floor of the valley.]



*****

Reykjavik, is quite a highly advanced civilization, with over a hundred thousand people living in the city at present. There are other far-northern cities similarly situated close to the Arctic Circle. Fairbanks, Alaska, with a population of over Eighty thousand. Nome, Alaska, Murrnansk are others.

"As a matter-of-fact, Dr. Fleming," Irma Dowde continued, "Dr. Mathiessen is quite correct. There are at present major centers of civilization at the fringe of the Arctic Circle, In his papers, Mr. Boardman suggests that the Egyptian culture, at the time the North Pole was located in the Sudan Basin, was situated at almost exactly the same distance from the pole of that epoch as Fairbanks, Alaska, is today situated from the present North Pole. According to Mr. Boardman, one of the two pivotal points was located in the area we now know as Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. The other was located in the border area of Ecuador and Peru.



Do we have a botanist here?" Half a dozen or more hands went up at once and Dr. Dowde pointed to a thin, sharp-faced woman of about fifty sitting at the midpoint of the group, a couple of seats from the center aisle. She stood immediately.

"I am Dr. Pamilia Parodi of Buenos Aires."

"Dr. Parodi do you have any background in the historical origin of fruits and vegetables?"

"Yes," she replied with a small shrug. "It is one of the courses I teach at the University of the Argentine."

"Excellent. Can you tell us, please, as briefly as possible, what the origin is of some of our more important fruits and vegetables?"

"It will probably be of some interest," Dr. Parodi said, her voice high and clear, "that the seats of origin of most of the world's important staple vegetables and fruits are the areas you've just mentioned as being previous pivotal points--the Sumatra-Malaysia area, and the Ecuador-Peru area. Most of our fruits have originated, as best as can be determined, from a large radius of southern Asia, of which the Malay Archipelago appears to be the hub, fruits such as cherries, pears, apples, plums, olives, figs, grapes. Others, too, perhaps--apricots and peaches, citrus fruits, bananas and coconuts and mango. On the other hand, the basic vegetables seem to have originated primarily in the upper Andes--Ecuador and Peru, as mentioned, but also Bolivia and upper Chile. They would include both white potatoes and sweet potatoes, yams, maize, numerous beans including Lima and navy beans, pumpkins, squash, peppers, and many others."

The botanist seemed to have finished, but just as Dr. Dowde was about to comment, she went on with a certain degree of hesitancy. "It has never been clearly explained before, but perhaps now it may be; there were cobs and kernels of popcorn found in ancient Peruvian burial grounds which were thought to be unique to the world until, some years later, identical species of popcorn were found in ancient urns buried in the Naga Hills in the border country of Burma and Siam. Heretofore, this has been a very uncomfortable coincidence."

"Thank you, Doctor " said Irma Dowde, smiling. 'I think the ramifications of what you've just said are quite clear. One further question, though. Is there any botanical evidence existing which links such fruits and vegetables to Egypt?"

The Argentine botanist shrugged elaborately. "I have heard of none, Dr. Dowde. The fruits and vegetables found there now came to that land as they came to Europe and North America--through gradually being transported there by migrating peoples."

As Dr. Parody reseated herself, Dowde nodded and spoke to the group in general. "Is it not possible, then," she said, "that an Egypt originally having a cold climate might account for the very notable lack of early Egypt, as we know it, having virtually no such fruits and vegetables? And, is it not strange that in one of the pivotal areas, South America, we find another ancient civilization, the Inca's, which, precisely like the Egyptian civilization, seems to have drawn its early cultural and technological level from a source it could never quite emulate, and which it was unable to maintain? Both the cultures of Egypt and Peru seem to parallel one another in being the slowly dying remnants of much greater civilizations of which we have no knowledge whatever."



What I started to say, Dr. Dowde, was wouldn't it then be reasonable to assume that the Eskimos of today were living in a tropical climate before this present epoch, and that when the earth rolled over they managed to survive and adapt to their new conditions?"

"Possibly," Irma Dowde conceded.

"And that when the pending capsizing does occur again-if it does," she added with a nervous little laugh, "that these same Eskimos might become as prominent then as the Egyptians were at the beginning of their history, as we know it?"

"According to the Boardman postulations," the archeologist replied, "when the next capsizing occurs the new poles will be located in the Pacific in the vicinity of the Philippines and in eastern Brazil. As an anthropologist, Dr. Cantrell, your deductions along these lines would undoubtedly be more pertinent than mine. The Eskimos are, of course, relatively primitive in their present society, but there is probably some justification for assuming that a portion of their culture will remain and that perhaps even the more developed culture of Fairbanks, Nome and other northern cities may persist to some degree. All that is purely speculative at this point, but along those lines I might ask here for the view of a paleontologist." A florid-faced man of middle age sifting only a few seats away from where Dr. Dowde was standing immediately came to his feet.

"I'm Hubert Sizer," he said crisply. "Colorado State University."

"Thank you, Dr. Sizer. You have read the HAB Theory summary, have you not?"

"I have."

"In particular, have you read those portions dealing with the mammoth remains found in Siberia and Alaska?"

"Yes. I was familiar with the discovery of them before reading the summary, and with the inexplicable nature of such occurrences."

"You've also read the portion in the summary regarding the rising and falling of continental masses, to form land hemispheres and water hemispheres, depending upon how the capsizing of the globe is triggered?"

"Yes."

"Could you mention other areas in the vicinity of Siberia snd Alaska where mammoth remains of a similar nature have been found?"

"Well, yes, I suppose so. They've been found on Melville Island in the Canadian Arctic, in Alaska and Siberia on both sides of the Bering Strait, on the New Siberian Islands and on Wrangel Island."

"Heretofore has there been any way of stating how these mammals of identical species could have been found on land areas separated by frigid seas?"

"Well," Dr. Sizer said, clearing his throat, "a land bridge across the Bering Strait has always been a matter of conjecture. However, there's no real proof for it. Nor is there any explanation 'as to how mammoths might have gotten to Wrangel or the New Siberian Islands.- Swimming in such seas would have been, for them, totally out of the question, and it is doubtful that a Bering Strait land bridge would have connected those islands to the mainland of Siberia."

"Doesn't it now seem likely, Dr. Sizer," Irma Dowde pressed on, "if we assume the validity of the HAB Theory and take into consideration the Boardman postulations of rising and falling land and water hemispheres, that Asia and North America were almost assuredly part of an unbroken land mass during B.P. 1, including the islands you've mentioned, and that the mammoths--and probably the Eskimos or their forebears--once roamed freely throughout this region in a tropical or subtropical climate?"

Again Dr. Sizer cleared his throat. "Well now," he said, hedging his words, "I wouldn't want to be committed to this as a definite pronouncement without considerable further study, but I suppose it is a responsible possibility if one does in fact accept the HAB Theory."

"And that the race of man in that region was able to adapt to the change in climate and survive. but the mammoths and rhinoceroses could not adapt and thus became extinct?"

"Well, again, yes," Sizer said, even more discomfited now, "but still only on the basis of the HAB Theory's being valid, and I'm not at all sure I'm in accord with deeming it such''.

"Excuse me, Dr. Sizer. I had no intention of putting you on the spot. I only wished for all of us to get a better general picture of the interlocking nature of all these bits of informa- tion--data which, if taken in an overall view, provide fascinating possibilities, but which, if focused in one particular field, seem to have no relationship to anything reasonably explainable within that field."



"Dr. Dowde, I am David Ben Ribal, historian at Beirut University in Lebanon. You mentioned earlier that the culture of the Egyptians appeared full-blown, without any history antedating the First Dynasty. Yet, if memory serves me correctly, it was about, the year 450 B.C. when the Greek historian Herodotus journeyed to both Memphis and Thebes on the Nile and talked at length with the priests there about their country and its history. At this time, again if memory serves me correctly," he added, though Irma Dowde was sure his memory was functioning quite well, "Herodotus was told by the priests of Memphis that their records went back eleven thousand years, and the priests of Thebes said their records covered the past I seventeen thousand years. That seems very much to be in opposition to the idea of a capsizing of the globe on the average of every six thousand years. Even if they had survived such a cataclysm, wouldn't accounts of it have played important roles in what records we find of them, and in what the priests themselves told to Herodotus?"

He sat down immediately, but before Irma Dowde could reply, Balourdos spoke from the front of the room.

"I would like," he said, "if Dr. Dowde has no objection, to comment in that respect."

"None whatever, Dr. Balourdos," she responded, "but as soon as you finish I will have to be leaving."

"Dr. ben Ribal," said the Greek archeologist, "you pose a most interesting question. Perhaps not so surprisingly, the identical question came to my own mind as I first read the summary in Athens. We have of course," he added with some degree of pride, "a great library at the University of Athens dealing with the lives and activities of ancient Greeks. I delved into the matter to some degree and discovered some rather startling facts.

"You are," he said, leaning his hip against the head table, "quite correct in your recollection of the priests of Thebes and Memphis relating to Herodotus that their historical records extended back, respectively, seventeen thousand and 00000 thousand years. Unfortunately, those records were on papyrus and skin scrolls, housed in one of the greatest libraries of antiquity, the Alexandria Library. Much of that library, along with a large portion of its collection of seven hundred thousand scrolls--the equivalent of ten thousand textbooks of today--was lost to fire during the reign of Caesar. Nevertheless, the Alexandria Library was rebuilt and continued to be a great font of knowledge and repository of ancient records until A.D. 390. In that year the Bishop of Alexandria, evidently insane and a religious fanatic, led a mob through the streets of the city and pillaged the library of half a million of its scrolls, all of which were burned in a street bonfire at the order of the bishop. Not too long after that, the remainder of the collection was destroyed by the invading army of Caliph Omer. So much," he added sorrowfully, "for the written record of Egypt's past.

"Fortunately, though, during his visits to Memphis and Thebes, Herodotus noted some other very peculiar information passed on to him by the priests. Information," he added meaningfully, "which heretofore was greatly puzzling and largely discounted as imaginings. Now, in light of this present theory, the histories written by Herodotus take on a great and rather frightening significance.

"Assuming," Balourdos continued, "that an observer in one of the so-called safe areas of earth at the time of a capsizing were looking at the heavens, he would note a drastic change in the course of the moon, stars and sun. They would suddenly no longer be rising and setting in the directions they had followed before. The sun might strangely rise in the south instead of the east, and set in the north instead of the west, because of the shift of the planet's surface in regard to its rotation. Or it might even shift a full one hundred and eighty degrees, so that the sun would appear to rise in the west instead of the east.

"For the sake of Example here," he went on, "imagine that at the moment of the last capsizing of the earth it was nine in the morning in Memphis. The earth began suddenly moving sideways even while continuing the normal rotation from west to east. To an Egyptian looking upward at such a time, it would appear that the sun had stopped in its path, then moved about erratically for a while and finally set very close to where it had risen.

"An impossible supposition?" Michael Balourdos asked of no one in particular, and then answered himself. "So it has always seemed. Consider, though, what else it was the priests of Memphis related to Herodotus. They told him with great assurance that in the history of their country, spanning eleven thousand years--or, as they put it, three hundred and forty one generations--Egypt had had three hundred forty-one kings and a similar number of high priests, and that twice during this span of time the sun had risen where it set, without any great change in the productivity of their country. In a framework of reference based on the HAB Theory, this heretofore inexplicable statement begins having considerable relevance. Mr. Boardman suggests in his postulations that the tendency is for the earth to capsize back and forth in somewhat the same pattern time after time, unless there is a change from a water hemisphere to a land hemisphere. The possibility becomes clear, then, that Egypt was fortunately sit- uated where it could survive with little damage two distinct land hemisphere capsizings of the earth.

"In other words," the big Greek archeologist concluded, "in B.P. 2 the earth was located approximately in the position it is now, but with the North Pole at Hudson Bay instead of at its present site. When the capsizing occurred, the planet rolled over, and the area now known to us as the Sudan Basin became the site for the North Pole. The Egyptians then lived in a climate not unlike that of Fairbanks or Reykjavik.

"Another rollover occurred and once again the sun seemed to stand still and then set where it had risen, and what had been the North Pole became the Sudan Basis of today. The reference by Herodotus to the sun rising and setting twice in the same direction in ancient Egypt fits into the precepts of Mr. Boardman's theory very nicely."

"I'd like to add one small point to the one you've just made, Dr. Balourdos." Irma Dowde said, standing with her findings. Except for just one thing, perhaps many more of us would accept it. That one matter prevents me, and many others, from doing so. Unless it can be resolved for us beyond any dispute, we will never accept it. I should add that while this is my own very strong personal feeling, I also say this as the official voice of the AGA.

"I have spent many hours on the matter I have just alluded to, and now I wish to present it here for the record. The HAB Theory contends that when a capsizing of the earth occurs, the ice caps are suddenly located on the equator and areas which were previously equatorial become sites for the new poles. This goes wholly against long-established geological estimates which, for example, place the age of the south polar ice cap at approximately thirteen million years. All right, if we say for the sake of argument that our geological time estimate is wrong then this brings up some very disconcerting contradictions.

"Consider: after the alleged capsizing, the ice now on the equator begins to thaw, but it is a process which takes scores of years to complete. By the same process, the tropical areas now at the pole freeze, very quickly on the surface but much more slowly to any great depth. Largely, this is due not only to the great amount of heat stored within the earth strata, and the insulating factor involved in such stratification, but equally to the warmth of surrounding oceans. True, with the thawing of the ice caps, the temperature of the oceans gradually lowers, but it takes a great while. We estimate that while snows would very quickly blanket the ground surface of the continent that was now at the pole, it would take about three hundred years before a true polar ice cap would even begin to form. In the case of the continent of Antarctica, which has an area of some five million square miles and a mean diameter of twenty eight hundred miles, the ice cap would have begun forming first at the location of the true pole itself which, in Antarctica, is slightly off from being centrally located. For the glacier to grow first upward and then gradually outward enough to completely cover the continent, so that no actual land of the continent was visible, would take from as little as forty-five hundred years to as much as six thousand years."





"Now, the HAB Theory sets the last capsizing of the earth of about seventy-five hundred years ago. That would take it, on our present Gregorian calendar, back roughly to the year 5500 B.C. This would mean that until at least the year 1000...

'the Incas!" Sanders said immediately.

"Not directly, sir," she replied. "Rather, pre-Incan. But this is not the principal point I'm making. Back in 1965 an Argentine citizen, Juan Moricz, who is an amateur archeologist, was poking about in the Ecuadorian Andes about a hundred fifty miles south of Quito, in the Province of Santiago. He stumbled across another of the most significant archeological finds of the past century--of any century, for that matter," she amended. "He found a cave held in superstitious awe by the Indian tribes of the area. After finally gaining their confidence, he was allowed to enter the cave to Explore. What he found is just about as amazing as the Chinese discovery and closely allied to it.

"The naturally formed cave gave way to a smooth shaft, obviously artificially made, which went straight down in three distinct drops, each of two hundred and fifty feet. At the level of two hundred fifty feet below the surface was a platform leading into a vault of considerable dimension; radiating outward from this vault was a whole series of artificial tunnels. The same situation was found at the five-hundred foot level and at the bottom, seven hundred fifty feet below ground level. The important aspects is that these tunnels evidently were made in exactly the same manner as the tunnels in the Bayan Kara Ula Mountains in China. Perfectly squared and highly glazed, as if formed by means of intense heat. There are, Mr. President, thousands--perhaps even tens of thousands--of miles of these tunnels beneath Ecuador and Peru. Mostly they're still uneXplored because the radiation in them very high and compasses refuse to operate down there. Only a few hundred miles of them have been Explored and those mostly in a cursory manner. There are a great many chambers filled with artifacts and statuary but, most important, there is one chamber in particular of immense consequence."

The scientist licked her lips. Her throat felt dry and she wished she had brought a glass of water in from the bathroom and put it on the nightstand before she began this call. She swallowed and went on.

"That chamber, with the unusual, highly glazed walls, ceiling and floors, measures four hundred fifty-nine feet by four hundred ninety-two feet. In the center of this room is a huge table around which are seven chairs. They are fashioned of an unknown material, as heavy as stone but not of stone. Nor are they metallic or wooden. The closest approximation seems to be some sort of Extremely dense plastic material, but far heavier than any plastic known. Forming a perimeter around the table and chairs is a ring of sculptured animals. Well, no," she corrected herself, "that's not quite right. They're made of the same material and appear to have been molded."

"What kind of animals, Dr. Dowde?"

"Some which represent animals indigenous to the area, others which definitely are not and never have been. There are jaguars and cougars, but also there are lions, elephants, wolves and bison. There are also monkeys, gorillas, and bears, as well as small invertebrates such as crustaceans and gastropods. All this--the furnishings and statuary--are intriguing, but they fade in significance to what else is in this room, some fifty feet from the table. You are undoubtedly aware, sir, that archaeologists were for many years agreed in the belief that the Incan and pre-Incan civilizations Existed without any form of writing Except a peculiar sort of record keeping through the tying of knots in lengths of cord. Yet, fifty feet from that center grouping is an incredible library permanently preserved in metal leaves. Each sheet of metal is one point six millimeters thick--about a sixteenth of an inch-- but thirty-eight inches by nineteen inches wide. Yet, they're so sturdy that standing on the narrow edge and eXtending upward over three feet, they remain perfectly rigid, with no sign of bending. The metal most closely resembles zinc, but it definitely is not zinc. Neither is it tin nor any other known metal or alloy.

"These metal pages stand side by side, held in place by great block like pieces of material of the same substance the furniture is fashioned from. And, Mr. President, each of these thousands of leaves has stamped on it in regular order, just as if stamped by a powerful press, line after line of a peculiar boxed form of writing. The characters are wholly unfamiliar and seemingly of a sophisticated hieroglyphic nature, but whatever culture produced this amazing library also left with it the key to its deciphering. In a special niche, obviously made precisely for the purpose it is serving in one of the huge block bookends, is what appears to be an alphabet of fifty-six characters stamped in a gridwork of squares on metal of the same type as the leaves, but much thicker. A sort of steel."

"The metal steel is an inch and a half thick, five and a half inches wide and twenty and a half inches long. From top to bottom there are fourteen rows of hieroglyphic characters, with four char- acters per row, confined within boxes which are exactly three and a half centimeters square--that's roughly an inch and three-eighths. None of the characters are the same, but these very characters are used in different combinations in the rows of characters on the metal leaves."

"Comparable, then," the President put in, "to someone today placing at the front of a large book a listing of the alphabet?"

"Precisely."

Irma Dowde issued a sour grunt. "Other than Juan Moricz's early--and successful--efforts in this respect, no attempt has ever been made to decipher them, although for a trained cryptologist it would probably be a relatively simple matter. The metal steel of boxed characters is far more important to the deciphering of those hieroglyphics than was the Rosetta Stone in the deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphics."

"Then why," Sanders demanded, bewildered, "has no attempt been made other than the early ones you mentioned?"

"Only the Ecuadorian government, in its infinite wisdom, knows the answer to that," she replied sardonically. "For the first four years after his discovery, Juan Moricz maintained secrecy about it, but he gradually realized the fantastic significance of his find and knew it should be placed in the care of reputable scientific teams for dose study. One of the big stumbling blocks was that he was not an Ecuadorian. Nevertheless, in June of 1969 he petitioned the government of Ecuador to give him legal title to the entire system of tunnels and their contents, with the stipulation , in accordance with article six hundred sixty-six of the ecuadorian civil code,, that though the treasures discovered became his personal property, they also remained subject to state control. After the governmental red-tape was cleared, and at last Moricz was granted the legal deed for his find, everything seemed fine. Then, somehow word got out that a great many of the archeological treasures in the upper level passages were of solid gold or platinum. A governmental seal was placed on the entrance and has remained there ever since. It is now perpetually guarded with supposedly entry permitted to no one. What purpose this accomplishes is anyone's guess. Moricz has speculated publicly that at intervals certain high government figures are entering the tunnels and gradually disposing of great quantities of the gold and platinum.

"is anything of what he deciphered available?"

"Moricz spend a great deal of time first learning how to decipher the hieroglyphics and then gradually translating the printed metal leaves. He admits that he did not decipher them in sequence, but rather a leaf here and there taken at random for the entire collection. ...nothing has been published of the findings although a few excerpts from his petitions to the government of Ecuador may be enlightening:"

"'the objects I found are of the following kinds

1. Stone and metal objects of different sizes and colors

2. Metal plaques engraved with signs and writing. They form a veritable metal library which might contain an synopsis of the history of humanity, as well as an account of the origin of mankind on earth and information about a vanished civilization







He began by saying that such definite records were indeed in existence and had been found many years before. In China. He then went on to describe the discovery and subsequent study of a large number of peculiar stone disks that had been found in some underground repositories in the Himalayas near the border of Tibet.

The discovery of the stone disks was made in 1938 by Professor Chi Pu Tei an archeologist who was leading a body of his students on an Expedition into the Bayan Kara Ula Mountains in the then-disputed frontier territory of Tibet and China. The precise location was not given he said it was in the general area of where Chang Thang Province of Tibet and Tsinghai Province of China abutted.

"That area, has been what is termed 'Positively Forbidden Territory' for the Western world since the year 1938, which now, in light of what Dr. Chow had to say, was probably not at all coincidental. At any rate, Professor Chi Pu Tei and his students discovered what was first described as a series of caves or caverns, but later admitted to be a complex system of artificial tunnels and underground storerooms. These tunnels are perfectly squared and the walls, ceilings, and floors are highly glazed, as if somehow the passages and rooms were carved by a device emitting heat of such intensity that it simply melted its way into the moun- tains."

"As might occur," the President put in, "if you pushed a red-hot nail into a block of wax?"

"A good comparison, Mr. President. Yes, Probably very similar to that at least in appearance. All right, to go on, the archeological group followed some of these passages and encountered larger chambers in which numerous un-described implements were discovered. The implements evidently differed from one chamber to another, but one item was found in common in each of the chambers-- the stone disks I mentioned earlier. Apparently in each of the chambers they were found in the same position--on a smooth cube of rock, glazed just as the tunnels were, with anywhere from Seven to twenty of the disks neatly stacked on top."

"I take it," Sanders said as the scientist paused, "that there is something especially significant about these disks?"

"Very much so, President Sanders. Each of them was twenty-two point seven centimeters in diameter by two centimeters in thickness, which is about three-quarters of an inch thick by nine inches in diameter. Each disk also had a perfectly circular two-centimeter hole in the Exact center. The edges of the disks were regularly indented all the way around, almost like a cogwheel, though neither sharply defined nor amorphous. Somewhere in between the two, almost like the fluting on a pie crust. however, we've yet to come to the most peculiar characteristic of the disks. Each had a twin groove which began at the center hole and gradually moved in an Expanding spiral counterclockwise manner to the outer rim. The individual disks bore a certain similarity to the phonograph records of today. There were evidently slight differences from disk to disk in the actual grooving, but the basic similarity was standard."

"What about the other items--the implements?"

"Dr. Chow did not comment to any length on what the other items were that were stored in the chambers or what has happened to them, but he did say that all of the stone disks were removed and taken for study to the Peking Academy of Prehistory."

"How many were there?"

"A total of seven hundred sixteen of them."

"Go on."

"Nothing was heard about this discovery," Irma Dowde said, after changing ears again, "by Western world scientists for the next twenty-seven years. During that period, Dr. Chow says, the disks were being studied intensively in a project headed by Professor Tsum Um Nui at the Peking Academy."

"Question," the President said. "Before we get too far away from the area where these disks were originally discovered, did Dr. Chow say anything about that particular region--who inhabits it? What it's like?"

"As a matter of fact he did, Mr. President, in passing. But it does bring out another curious element which has a distinct tie-in later on. The Bayan Kara Ula Mountains area is one of the most isolated and least known areas on earth today. The nearest city of any consequence is Lhasa, Tibet about four hundred miles to the south through virtually impassable terrain. It is an area presently inhabited by two tribes of very unusual people."

"Unusual in what respect?

She sighed. "They simply do not fit into any racial category established by anthropologists for the races of the world. For one thing, they are both of pygmy stature. The tallest and shortest adults have measured at four feet seven inches and three feet six inches respectively, but the average height is four feet two inches. They are yellow-skinned. Their heads are dis- proportionately large and sparsely haired, and their eyes are large but not Oriental in aspect, with pale bluish irises. Their features are very nicely formed, most nearly approximating Caucasian, and their bodies are extremely thin and delicate. Adult weight is estimated by Dr. Chow to average, in our system of weights, about thirty-eight to fifty-two pounds. The tribes call themselves Dropa and Han.

"Unusual. Very unusual," Sanders muttered. please continue."

"The disks, as I was saying, underwent extensive study by Professor Tsum Um Nui, interrupted at times by war. It took him and his coworkers only a short time to discover that the spiral grooves were not sound tracks but, rather, an incredibly ancient writing inscribed in some unknown way and very nearly microscopic in size. The disks were determined to be no less than three or four thousand years old at the youngest, and more likely anywhere from eight to twelve thousand years old. This would make them the oldest known form of writing in the world. Deciphering was incredibly difficult. It was twenty-four years--in 1962--before Professor Nui and a young colleague found the key and began laboriously deciphering. That young colleague happened to be our present group chairman, Dr. Ho-Chung Chow. The deciphered spiral text of the stones, even though only a small amount was completed, was so startling in its content that the Chinese government prohibited any publication of the papers of Nui and Chow. Then, in 1965, in a manner which Chow describes with a peculiar smile was 'very mysterious,' an article written by the Russian philologist Vyacheslav Saizev appeared in Das Vegetarische Universum, a German magazine, and in the Russian-English magazine Sputnik, telling about the disks, their qualities and composition, and a little about what had been deciphered from them. It's rather startling."

"Dr. Chow accidentally bumped one of the disks against a metal table, and though it didn't damage the disk, through his hand he could feel a strange vibration. He then suspended one of the disks with a strong line and tapped it with a metal rod. For nearly half a minute the disk rang with a clear, perfect tone, much in the manner of a tuning fork. Subjected to close analysis, the disk was found to have a very high cobalt content, which in itself is incredible in stones of such age. Further, there was a high metallic content to them. All indications are that these disks were at some time part of some sort of advanced and sophisticated electrical system. The articles in both Sputnik and Das Vegetarische Universum presented very little of the deciphered text, but what was there was significant in light of the HAB Theory:

"'This is our story as the Dropa have given us this means of preserving our words forever on one of their many 'ecal.' I don't know that word 'ecal' at all," she said, "but it evidently refers to these peculiar disks. Continuing. 'The Dropa stopped their great sky ship in the air above us and terrified all our people. At first our men and women and children hid themselves in caves, but then wonder overcame fear and they emerged. Ten times during the night smaller ships came out of the larger ship and floated to the ground among us, and ten times we fled into the caves before sunlight. But then the Dropa entered our heads with calming sounds and they made signs of friendship, and they told us inside our heads that we should not fear them, for their intentions were of a peaceful nature. As they worked with their great machines nd cut into the mountains they told us of the great disruption and flood that was to come again as it had come so many times before and that there was little time remaining to preserve mankind, but we did not understand. In all our history there had been only one flood and that was the great flood which was ending as our lives here were beginning. The Dropa told us not to fear because this was a safe place. Then, all but fifty of the Dropa returned to the big ship and disappeared into it and then the big ship moved quickly from our sight to return to the other safe place'"



"That," Irma Dowde said, " is all, up until that time that had been deciphered from one disk. It represents only about one- twentieth of one percent of the grooving on that particular disk. Since Then, Dr. Chow told us the efforts at deciphering have gone on. The entire first disk has been translate into a volume of nearly two thousand pages... but he would not tell what else was said there. The other seven hundred fifteen disks have similar but more extensive double grooving however its more difficult to decipher. No real progress was made over the years since then until a significant key was discovered just ten years ago. Five complete disks and a portion of another four have been deciphered. He declined to comment at all in respect to what they revealed except that one of the disks began by the Dropa people commenting on their regret that the larger sky ship had been badly damaged in the turning of the earth - his exact phraseology. The most modern mineral dating techniques have now shown the oldest of the disks to be approximately eleven thousand five hundred years old, and the others spaced in between that to the latest which is approximately seventy five hundred years old. The oldest disk is the one which comments on the damage to the ship by the turning of the earth. The newest is the one, evidently recorded by the progenitors of the Han tribe, telling of the visit by the Dropas and their warning of destruction.

"The corollaries to be drawn here, Mr. President, are momentous. If," she added with emphasis, "the ancient writings are to be believed. And if, the entire discovery and deciphering is to be believed. Taken in reference to Mr. Boardman's postulations, they fit much too well to be mere coincidence. According to Boardman, our present epoch is somewhere around seventy-five hundred years old, which ties in perfectly with the capsizing of the earth which he claims to have occurred about that time, and which the Dropa were obviously aware was approaching. Again, according to Boardman, the epoch before our present epoch--that is, B.P. 1 lasted only about four thousand years, which again ties neatly to the eleven-thousand-five-hundred-year dating of the oldest disk and the capsizing of the earth to end epoch B.P. 2 and begin epoch B.P. 1--further linked by the Dropas' referring to the damage their large ship had suffered in the turning of the earth.

There was an Extended silence on both ends of the line as Irma Dowde finished, and then at last the President spoke, a sense of wonder tinged with disbelief in his voice. "You chose your word well when you said it was startling, Dr. Dowde. It's an awful lot to chew. It also opens one hell of a keg of worms. My immediate reaction is to be Extremely skeptical of any ancient race on earth having had the ability to fly."

"I think we've all felt that way, sir, but we're coming up with an enormous number of references to the ancients having had the power of flight. This is especially true, sir, with the Chinese. There are numerous accounts of the Chinese having built flying machines only to have each in turn--and sometimes the man who built it as well--destroyed by the emperor then in power because of the dangerous potential it had for war. I think, Mr. President, that maybe it's time we began treating such stories with our minds more open."

"Touche," he said. "My own words coming back to haunt me. You're correct, of course. All right, assuming they possessed flight ability, is there any indication where the so called big ship of the Dropas came from and where it went?"

"Nothing concrete insofar as where the ship came from, but it certainly leads to speculation.... the translation says 'to the other safe place' signifying that for the coming flood and destruction the Dropa were predicting, there were only two safe places. That, again ties in with boardman's theory regarding the pivotal points as being safe at the time the earth was capsizing."

"Dr. Vyacheslav Saizev, the Russian philologist who wrote the pieces which appeared in the two magazines, mad a discovery on his own. Tracing rumors of unusual rock paintings and cave paintings in the far SE USSR fairly close tot he border of Kirgz, SSR, near a little village called Fergana. It's just over a thousand miles from where the stone disks were found... he finally found a small area of caves in which there were some of the most incredible prehistoric rock paintings ever discovered.

"...the painting of particular interest depicts an individual, somewhat stylized but more in the manner of a picasso stylization than the usual stick figure types commonly observed in ancient cave paintings. Saizev estimates an age of about nine thousand years to the painting. The individual pictured is dressed in what can only be some form of spacesuit. A large, clear globe encircles his head and appears held to the collar by a row of rivet heads or locknuts of some kind. Positioned in front of his mouth, which is open in speech, is an Excellent representation of a microphone, from which wires come out the bottom and attach to some sort of power pack. There are numerous dials and gauges on the suit, without exception connected to thick wires draped in layers over his right shoulder and coming from his back. The seams of his suit are clearly visible and he is wearing heavy gloves. His head, incidentally, is large for his body. There are flames erupting from the right side of the clear globe over his head and the right side of his face appears to be burning. His expression is somewhat agonized and he seems to be calling for help into his microphone. But--and this is what is so significant, sir," she added, becoming more excited, "in his gloved hand, the right hand, he holds at chest level an exact duplicate of the Chinese stone disks, complete to hole in the center, grooving and the peculiar cog-fluting on the outer rim. So accurate is the painting that the grooving can be seen emanating in counterclockwise manner from the center hole to the outer rim, identically to those found in the tunnels in the Bayan Kara Ula Mountains. That's all I have on it."

The President was silent Except for a faint, wondering "Hmmmm," just barely audible to the archeologist. After a moment Dr. Dowde spoke again.

"Shall I go on with the final item, sir?"

"Yes, of course. forgive my lack of comment." He gave a short laugh. "It's just that I'm overwhelmed."

"All of us are, Mr. President. Even the most skeptical. I'll finish now as quickly as possible. This last matter is an item of my own deduction since leaving that meeting this afternoon. As you may recall from John Grant's summary of the HAB Theory, Mr. Boardman postulates a shifting of the earth on its axis of approximately eighty degrees at the time of the capsizing action. What I wanted to determine was this: under the assumption that the deciphered message was accurate and the so-called big sky ship left the Chinese safe area for the 'other safe place,' then where was that other place? Fortunately, the manager of the Waldorf has a very nice world globe in his office and allowed me to use it shortly after I left the meeting. The alleged 'safe area' in China where the stone disks were found lies at approximately ninety degrees east longitude. Thus, the other safe place should be located a hundred seventy degrees from there, which allows for the earth shift of eighty degrees instead of a full ninety. That would take it to eighty degrees west, on the opposite side of the earth. That line of longitude, Mr. President," she added softly, "passes through Peru and Ecuador."

. [What follows is a dramatic tool of the author, in telling the story via newswire bulletins.]



PERUVIAN MYSTERY INTRODUCED



Dr. Eva Tobazo, professor of prehistory at the University of Santiago, has brought up for consideration by HAB Theory Symposium scientists in New York a Peruvian mystery of many years ago.

Dr. Tobazo pointed out that a number of vases were found in the Nazca District not far from Pisco, Peru, in the 1920s by Dr. Julio Tello. The enigma lies in the fact that paintings on the vases depict llamas with five toes.

"The llama of our present age," she told a group in the Regency Hotel, "has only two toes, but in an earlier evolutionary period the animal went through tens of thousands of years ago, they had five toes."

Rangoon TIBETAN

Tibetan folklore of "sky people no larger than an eight-year-old child, but with large heads, who landed from the heavens in a ship near one of the villages." According to the ancient story, the little sky people approached the village and made efforts to communicate, but the villagers considered them harbingers of evil, killed several of the "Heaven Devils," and chased the others into the hills, but they escaped into "smooth tunnels" which the vil- lagers feared to enter, but which they thereupon sealed with rocks . . .



New York Daily News

CHOW REVEALS SECOND CHINESE DISCOVERY

Dr. Ho-Chung Chow, University of Peking archeologist, who Friday stunned members of the HAB Symposium with his relation of an immensely important archeological discovery unknown to the Western world for a quarter of a century, today added another note oś eX- citement to the discussions

Chow related that a colleague in his department at the university, Dr. Chi Pen Lao, was Exploring caves in July 1961 in Hupeh Province west of Yoyang. In the Hohan Mountains at the south shore of Tungf Ting Hu (a large lake) he entered a cave and followed it inward and downward. At 32 meters (105 feet) beneath the surface he encountered a large domed room with glazed walls, from which numerous squared tunnels moved off deeper into the mountains in a confusing, interconnecting network. As in the main chamber, the tunnels had a glazed surface as if they had once been melted.

Chow described some of the unusual items found by Dr. Lao, but stressed that no spiral disks had been located here. However, an intricately rendered painting on one wall depicted a wide variety of animals all being driven in one direction by men above them riding on what he called "a shield-like flying platform" and clad in very modern-looking trousers and jackets. The men held what appeared to be long pipes to their lips, which they were pointing toward the animals . . .

Atlanta Constitution

Prehistoric Deaths Said Caused by Bullets.



... lent credence to the HAB postulation that highly advanced human civilizations may have existed in previous epochs of time and were wiped out by the sort of worldwide cataclysm the HAB Theory forecasts.

One of these skulls, presently in the Moscow Museum, is that of a large animal called an auroch, which is a type of bison of the Neolithic Age 1,700 to 10,000 years ago. The skull provides an anachronistic enigma, because in the very center of its brow is a neat circular hole of a nature which could have been caused by only one means known to man--a bullet. Scientists heretofore have withheld speculation about what might have caused the hole, which is about the size of a modern .44 caliber

I bullet. Now it is being openly and very seriously discussed as having a bearing to the HAB Theory.

Probably even more startling is a human skull with the same sort of injury, but dated back to approXimately 38,000 years ago. This skull is now in the collection of the British Museum of Natural History in London. The director of that institution, paleontologist Percival Heathly III, discussed it with his group of HAB scientists in the St. Moritz Hotel today.

Heathly said that the skull, that of an adult mate, was originally discovered in a cave near the Zambesi River of Rhodesia The left side of the cranium shows a perfectly round hole 1.15 centimeters in diameter, which is approXimately the same size as that in the skull of the auroch. The right side of the human skull, however, has been shattered.

"Had the injury been caused by a cold weapon," Heathly said, "such as a spear or arrow or even a round-bladed knife, there would have had to be radial cracks emanating from the circular hole. Further, it is most unlikely that, had it been caused by such a cold weapon, the side of the cranium would have been so thoroughly shattered.

All the evidence points to a bullet which entered from the left side and then, flattened continued it's course nd blew out the right side of the cranium.





Holder glanced at his large gold watch, extracted from a vest pocket, saw it was Exactly on the hour, snapped it closed with a loud click, and called the morning's session to order in his most professorial tone.

"Dr. Bartell," he said, "yesterday you were remarking about what you stated was evidence that past civilizations had knowledge of cybernetics. I must say, I find that hard to believe and I'm sure others do as well. However, we'll hear you out. Are you prepared to conclude your remarks this morning?"

"I am," Bartell said, rising.

"Quite a number of ancient Greeks and Egyptians," he told them, "are reputed to have had ambulatory automatons which were powered by something called 'lightning in a jar.' These were allegedly perfectly functioning robots which could talk and walk and do simple household tasks. All of them, unfortunately, were reluctantly destroyed by their owners because of public outcry--a growing fear among those who didn't own one of the handy servants that the gods would object to man's making and using such a creation."

Bartell concluded with a discussion of the device which had come to be known as the Antikythera Computer, a device discovered in the ancient wreckage of a ship on the bottom of the Aegean Sea near the Greek island of Antikythera. Found in 1900 by a sponge diver, the device was an odd conglomeration of strange dials and gears, wheels and rods, and spheres of brass and bronze. Although badly corroded, it was possible to reconstruct what it had been, although this had not occurred for many years. The archaeologists who initially studied it were totally baffled as to its purpose. They were able to date the wreckage of the ship to around 55 B.C.X but the amphorae--wine and oil vases--found with it were more accurately dated to 65 B.C.

Note: Here is an article from Scientific American on: The Antikythera Computer" -Webmaster

'There is the strong likelihood," Bartell added, "that the mechanical device was very ancient then. At any rate, probably because it presented an embarrassing enigma, the device wound up in a storage room of the National Archaeological Museum of Greece in Athens. There it remained for nearly; sixty years, out of sight and out of mind."

He shook his head. "It wasn't until half a century later that the mechanism came under the close scrutiny of Dr. Derek Price of England, who was then with the American Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. He made a meticulous reconstruction and wound up with a device about the size of a large portable typewriter case, which he positively identified as a compleX and highly sophisticated computer and planetarium. It was designed for and capable of advanced astronomical calculations. Dr. Price wrote of his findings in Scientific American--the June issue of 1959--and later stated that the device was certainly not the first or last of its kind. He is not a man who makes rash statements and yet he said at the time that finding a thing like this is like finding a jet airplane in the tomb of King Tutankhamen, That, Mr. Chairman," he said, turning briefly to Holder, "is all I have."



... the enigma of electrical batteries having been in use over two thousand years before in the ancient city of Babylon ....in 1938 this whole matter came to light through the efforts of the German archeologist Wilhelm Konig. He was a highly respected scientist who discovered in the site of ancient Babylon, not far from present Baghdad, a large number of pottery jars designed to be batteries. Eight years after that his speculations along these lines were proven when a General Electric Company scientist, Willard Gray, studied his find and then duplicated the jars and metal rods and other paraphernalia and wound up with a workable battery."



"Artifacts might possibly be planted on archeological sites," he conceded, "but there is no possible way for anyone to plant a modern writing as an ancient document, since the age of materials used in the writing is clearly determinable and cannot be duplicated in undetectable manner. Because we are now on a subject in which I have an interest and upon which I was prepared to speak, I would like to offer this for consideration." He held up his paper and then unfolded it. "What I have here is a copy I made of a passage in one of India's oldest known documents, the Agastya Samhita, which is proven to be of great antiquity. This is a literal translation and it should be noted that while it may sound very modern, it is confirmed as ancient. this is exactly how it is written:"

Place a well cleaned copper plate in an earthenware vessel. cover it, first by copper sulfate and then by moist sawdust. After that put a mercury amalgamates zinc sheet on top of the sawdust to avoid polarization. The contact will produce and energy known by the twin name of mitra-Varuna. Water will be spilt by this current into pranavayu and udanavauy. A chain of one hundred jars is said to give a very active and effective force.'



[Another passage from an ancient text, but the source was lost in the OCR Translations]

"Take on the tip of a knife the contents of the pox inflammation and inject it into the arm of a well man, mixing it with his blood. A fever will follow, but the malady will pass very easily and will create no complications. Thereafter, the second man will forever be rendered in- vulnerable to the same disease." When she completed reading it, Pompara revealed that this was a passage outlining an im- munization process against smallpox and that it was written in the ancient Brahmin book of India known as the Sactya Grantham, which was compiled 3,500 years ago. She added that Edward Jenner (1749-1823) is credited with discovery of smallpox vaccination in 1796.'"

Pompara, before relinquishing the floor, also noted that ancient records from Thebes show that the use of penicillin was widespread in Egypt 4,000 years ago, although Alexander Fleming received modern credit for the discovery of penicillin in 1929. Both the use of penicillin for the treatment of infection and the process of vaccination for smallpox were obviously not newly discovered at the ancient dates noted, she added, but rather they represent medical arts which were dying at the time and which vanished soon thereafter.

"'Other discussions during the meeting covered the use of anesthetics in Peru and Egypt some 4,500 years ago, the successful technique of brain surgery in hundreds of cases in Peru about the same time and, catching many of the conferees by surprise, the use in China of an X-ray machine in X 206 B.C., and the use of a machine which may have combined both X ray and fluoroscope in India in 500 B.C. In the latter example, a physician named Jivaka wrote that he made great and good use of the machine in diagnosing the maladies of patients, adding that "placed before a patient, it illuminated his body as a lamp illuminates the objects inside a house; it revealed the nature of maladies." Well, how's that for an eye-opener?"

"Amazing," Kina repeated.



... a description of numerous tombs found in Italy, Greece, Syria and Egypt which, when opened after thousands of years of being sealed, contained glowing lights. In most cases the lights were described as "glowing globes on pedestals" which emanated a light without the generation of heat and from no observable power source.

One such tomb, found along the Via Appia outside Rome, was opened in 1485 and was found to contain not only glowing lights, but the body of a young woman coated with a strange salve. There was no doubt that the tomb had been sealed for at least a thousand years. When the protective salve was removed from the body of the woman, described as being about twenty years old and of very pretty features, the flesh was found to be as firm and whole as if she had passed from life only moments before. The body was placed on display in Rome for a week or two and was seen by many thousands of visitors, but then decomposition set in and it was reburied . . .



1 The original source map those copied to draw the maps of Re'is, Ptolemy, Mercator, the portolanos and other had to have been drawn before Antarctica was ice-covered and, in some cases, while the continent was still located at the equator.

2 That whoever drew the original maps had an accurate knowledge of all the continents drawn

3 That the original source maps were compiled through utilization of a stereographic or gnomonic system of projec- tion involving higher calculus and spherical trigonometry and perhaps other forms of advanced mathematics. That while the projection trigonometry used suggests the work of islands. Dr. Shepard wants to believe that the lost section of the map still exists somewhere and says he'll probably be spending the rest of his life searching for it. And that brings us, finally, to the maps he has found recently and their rela- tionship to what he's involved in deeply right now.

"As you know, sir, he found the three old maps last May. One was more a curio than anything else, but the other two he has definitely traced back to AleXandria--one of them having been drawn by Claudius Ptolemy. Drawn by him, but not originating with him-- but I'll get back to those in a moment. His project, as you also know, began a long time before he found those maps known to man, and he can glance at an old map and almost instantly tell you if it's a Ptolemy or Mercator, a Re'is or Zeno, a Finaeus or De Canistns or Ben Zara or whatever. The old maps have told him a great deal. They've underlined their findings of Hapgood and Mallery and others, but they've shown more than that, too. He's studied them all in the light of these newest developments and has found facts they've included which have heretofore been ignored for the most part.

"The Oronteus Pinaeus Map of 1531, for example, not only also shows the Antarctic continent just as the Re'is map of 1513 does, but it has a subtle and important difference. No rivers are shown far in the interior of the continent; they're all pretty much rivers flowing from the coastal ranges, not ice covered, into the sea. To Dr. Shepard, this is clear indication that the original map from which the Oronteus Finaeus map was copied was not quite as old as the original from which Re'is copied."

"Simply because the absence of interior topography in the Oronteuo Finaeus map strongly indicates that it was prepared when the interior of Antarctica had already grown an ice cap, but that the growth had not yet reached the coastal areas. Thus, there's a near certainty that the Re'is map was based on an original map drawn prior to 5495 B.C., while Antarctica was still located in the tropics, while the Oronteus Finaeus map was based on an original drawn probably a hundred years or 80 prior to 3995 B.C., after the capsizing of the earth and the initial growth of the new ice cap, but before that ice cap covered the coastlines.

"Then there's the map of another Turk, Hadji Ahmed, that's important. The name and style are similar to Re'is, but the map is dated 967, which is A.D. 1559, and that's five years after Re'is was beheaded. The importance of this one is in the rendering of Alaska and Siberia. There's always been speculation of a land bridge once having existed, connecting Asia and North America. The Ahmed Map shows much more than merely a land bridge. It clearly shows the two continents with a land mass, not a bridge, connecting them, a mass over a thousand miles wide That map hat to have been copied from a map originally drawn prior to the last capsizing of the earth

"Dr. Shepard points out that the Zeno Map also shows Greenland as two islands, and that point of fact was proven by the French in the late 19408. There's the Ibn Ben Zara Map, also drawn at Alexandria, which is one of the finest and most incredibly accurate in coastal detail, and which may have been the model for all the portolanos which followed, but which was never improved upon.

"A big and important difference," Grant went on, "according to Dr. Shepard, crops up in the Stone Map of China this one was superbly engraved in stone in AD. 1137, but obviously the original map existed long before that. Its importance lies not in the coastal delineations of China, but in the phenomenal topographical detail of inner China--with all river systems depicted with every bit as much accuracy as we can achieve today using the most advanced geological surveying techniques, including extensive aerial photography.

"there are others, sir, which Dr. Shepard remarks on, which have equal importance in whole or in part--the 1502 Portuguese map by De Canerio; the Benincasa Chart of 1508; the Reind Chart of 1510, which is also PuhgueJe, and which depicts Australia; the 1484 Venetian Map from Italy They're all of the same ilk. They show a mapping ability far ahead of the abilities of the people who possessed them and who copied them.





...view of the entire Middle East in about the year 235 B.C., giving exact locations of villages and cites whose existence up until now has been either unknown or only vaguely suspected. It shows travel routes, both land and water, which are largely unknown. These are all placements made by Ptolemy through his own knowledge, but it is evident that the basic outline of the map was copied by him from a much older chart."

On two margins of the map and partially on the third, Claudius Ptolemy has, in his own hand, written an account of the origin of the map he copied, insofar as he knew its original. He states that the map--the original one salvage on a material he called ulgiz, which was of an almost indestructible nature, but upon which words could not be written or even drawn by anyone Except Qandhi. "Ptolemy goes on to say that as a reward he doesn't say for what-- the Qandhi chart was handed down for many generations by the ancestors of the family of Topthopi, who was a priest of Memphis during the reign of Teti. That places it finally in the Seventh Dynasty which in our calendar, began in 2294 B.C. and lasted until 2132 B.C. Apparently it was ancient at that time. It was Topthopi who took it out of the family heritage and placed it in the library of the Temple of Ptsh. It remained there until just before the destruction of that temple and its library collection in 300 s.c., when it was removed with many other Qandhi charts to the Library of AleXandria"

"That was where Ptolemy saw it. Claudius Ptolemy copied it as the final chart in a series of copies he had made from the Qandhi charts. In his words, he 'brought it forward' to modern use, evidently referring to his addition of the cities, villages, paths, and other markings added by himself. Among many other items spoken of in his marginal writing, Ptolemy said the Qandhi chart material would withstand immersion in water and exposure to sunlight or flying sand, and that it could be rolled but not folded or torn or cut.







...false premise that the equatorial bulge is rigid immovably solid, but recent geological studies show that fact it is a ridding ring of earth materials which, when forced to do so by tremendous pressures, becomes relatively plastic in constitution. As such, it both can and does rearrange its constituent parts to accommodate itself to pressures being brought against it. The equatorial bulge begins to compensate for being moved away from the peak of centrifugal force. It begins move back toward that force, flowing beneath the crust of earth's surface, its forces attempting to overcome resistance to movement manifested in the hard rock stratifications. The bulge appears to move at this time like a underground wave, analogous to the movement that can created by gripping one edge of a carpet, raising and jerk it downward and thus causing a large bulge to move beneath it. But, at best, it is a relatively slow movement compared to that of the ice cap, and it is one that is tremendously disruptive to the earth's surface, resulting in considerable earthquake and tidal wave activity.

Surface Disruption. Wholly incalculable kinetic energy develops from the movement of the poles and the shifting the earth's equatorial bulge. Virtually the whole of the sea is in disruptive movement at this time. The kinetic energy thus developed is absorbed through a whole series of surface transformations - crushing wrinkling, splitting, descending, bending, stretching. The formation of mountain chains and equally extensive rifts in earth's surface results. The mountain ranges and rifts are at or very near right angles to the forces expended. An example of such folding or wrinkling is the great ridge extending from the Arctic to antarctic along the western edges of the North and South Mexican continents, forming the Andes and Rockies-Sierra Nevada chains presently existing.

An example of stretching and splitting is the Great Rift alley of Africa, extending from the Mediterranean all the way southward across the face of Africa nearly to its southern terminus. Examples of the crushing, elevating and bend are seen everywhere on the globe in the form of uplifted strata and geological rubble areas. Isolated mountains of the type of Stone Mountain in Georgia, Steamboat rock at Dinosaur National Monument in Utah, Table Mount in Africa, the Rock of Gibraltar off southwestern Euro- pe, and Ayers Rock in Australia--all are clear evidence of elevation through vertical geologic fault, with the mass of earth material raised, exposing the lamination of strata that have been buried as much as three miles or more below I earth's surface.

The distinct formation of warpage and bending and elevation in some areas, the wrinkling in others, the stretching and writhing in still others, but none of these as a general reaction across the face of the earth, provides corollary evince in support-of the HAB Theory. This is especially true in relation to rifts and wrinkles. The rifts most likely occur at the beginning of the capsize movement, for rigid land masses are suddenly pulled with credible force and stretch as far as their physical properties allow, and then split to relieve the incredible pressure. Wrinkles most likely occur toward the cessation of the capsizing movement, for the slowdown and stop are so abrupt the momentum of continental masses cannot properly adjust to it and an accordion like pileup of earth materials occurs, resulting in the altering of many horizontal tiers of strata to vertical or near-vertical position and similarly lying sync lines and antidines of strata....

-- 18,768 words. Other pages: Hab 0 | Hab 1 | Hab 2 | Hab 3